Mohammad (pbuh) was born in Mecca ( Makkah), Arabia, on Monday, 12 Rabi’ Al-Awal (2 August A.D. 570). His mother, Aminah, was the daughter of Wahb Ibn Abdu Manaf of the Zahrah family. His father, ‘Abdullah, was the son of Abdul Muttalib. His genealogy has been traced to the noble house of Ishmael, the son of Prophet Abraham in about the fortieth descend. Mohammad’s father died before his birth. Before he was six years old his mother died, and the doubly orphaned Mohammad was put under the charge of his grandfather Abdul Muttalib who took the most tender care of him. But the old chief died two years afterwards. On his deathbed he confided to his son Abu Talib the charge of the little orphan.
When Mohammad was twelve years old, he accompanied his uncle Abu Talib on a mercantile journey to Syria, and they proceeded as far as Busra. The journey lasted for some months. It was at Busra that the Christian monk Bahira met Mohammad. He is related to have said to Abu Talib: ‘Return with this boy and guard him against the hatred of the Jews, for a great career awaits your nephew.”
When Mohammad was twenty five years old, he traveled once more to Syria as a factor of a noble and rich Quraishi widow named Khadijah; and, having proved himself faithful in the commercial interests of that lady, he was soon rewarded with her hand in marriage. This marriage proved fortunate and singularly happy. Khadijah was much the senior of her husband, but in spite of the disparity of age between them, the most tender devotion on both sides existed. This marriage gave him the loving heart of a woman who was ever ready to console him in his despair and to keep alive within him the feeble, flickering flame of hope when no man believed in him and the world appeared gloomy in his eyes.
When Mohammad reached thirty-five years, he settled by his judgment a grave dispute, which threatened to plunge the whole of Arabia into a fresh series of her oft-recurring wars. In rebuilding the Sacred House of the Ka’ba in A.D. 605, the question arose as to who should have the honor of raising the black stone, the most holy relic of that House, into its proper place. Each tribe claimed that honor. The senior citizen advised the disputants to accept for their arbitrator the first man to enter from a certain gate. The proposal was agreed upon, and the first man who entered the gate was Mohammad “Al-Ameen.” His advice satisfied all the contending parties. He ordered the stone to be placed on a piece of cloth and each tribe to share the honor of lifting it up by taking hold of a part of the cloth. The stone was thus deposited in its place, and the rebuilding of the House was completed without further interruption. When Mohammad reached forty, he would seclude himself in the cave of Mount Hira and worship three days and nights. He would, whenever he wished, return to his family at Mecca and then go back again, taking with him the necessities of life. Thus he continued to return to Khadijah from time to time until one day the revelation came down to him and the Angel Gabriel (Jibreel) appeared to him and said: “Read!” But as Mohammad was illiterate, having never received any instruction in reading or writing, he said to the angel: “I am not a reader.” The angel took a hold of him and squeezed him as much as he could bear, and then said again: “Read!” Then Prophet said: “I am not a reader.” The Angel again seized the Prophet and squeezed him and said: “Read! In the Name of Your Lord, Who has created (all that exists), has created a man from a clot (a piece of thick coagulated blood). Read! And your Lord is the Most Generous, Who has taught (the writing) by the pen, has taught man that which he knew not.” (Ch 96:1-4 Quran).
The following is the timeline of Mohammad’s life:
570- Born in the town of Mecca. His name (Abu al-Qasim Mu%ammad ibn Abd Allah ibn Abd al-Muttalib ibn Hashim ibn Abd Manaf ibn Qusai ibn Kilab) derives from the Arabic verb hamada, meaning “to praise, to glorify”.
575- Orphaned upon the death of his mother and placed in the protection of his paternal grandfather, then his uncle.
595 – Marries Kadijah – an older, wealthy widow. They had six children.
610- Receives first revelation from God during the month of Ramadam.
613- Took his message public, these would later become the Qu’ran, Islam’s sacred scripture.
622- Emigrates with his followers from Mecca to Yathrib, soon to become known as Medina.
624- The start of three major battles with the Meccans – the Battle of Badr (victory), 625 the Battle of Uhud (defeat), and 627 the Battle of the Trench (victory).
628- The two sides signed a treaty recognising the Muslims as a new force in ARabia. Meccan allies breached the treaty a year later.
629- Orders first raid into Christian lands at Muta (defeat).
630- Conquers Mecca (along with other tribes).
631- Consolidated most of the Arabian Penunsula under Islam.
632- Returned to Mecca to perform a pilgrimage.
632- Dies in Medina after a brief illness. He is buried in the mosque of Medina.
1. Wardak, Abdul Hamid, “Nabavi Seerat”, 1394, Kabul.
2. Ministry of Hajj, “Iftikhar-e-Basharyat Hazrat Mohammad (pbuh), Kabul.
3. Quraishi, “Dast hayee Makhfee wa Syasat hayee Alani”, 1383, Peshawar.
Abdul Hadi Quraishi