Science and technology in Israel is one of the country’s most developed sectors. Israel spent 4.2% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on civil research and development in 2013, one of the highest ratios in the world. Israel ranks fifth among the most innovative countries in the Bloomberg Innovation Index. It ranks thirteenth in the world for scientific output as measured by the number of scientific publications per million citizens. In 2014, Israel’s share of scientific articles published worldwide (0.9%) was much higher than its share of the global population (0.1%). It also has one of the highest per capita rates of filed patents.
Israel counts 140 scientists and technicians per 10,000 employees, one of the highest ratios in the world. In comparison, there are 85 per 10,000 in the United States and 83 per 10,000 in Japan. In 2012, Israel counted 8,337 full-time equivalent researchers per million inhabitants. This compares with 3,984 in the USA, 6,533 in the Republic of Korea and 5,195 in Japan. Israel’s high technology industry has benefited from both the country’s skilled workforce and the strong presence of foreign high-tech firms and research centres.
Israel is home to major players in the high-tech industry and has one of the world’s most technologically literate populations. In 1998, Tel Aviv was named by Newsweek as one of the ten most technologically influential cities in the world. Since 2000, Israel has been a member of EUREKA, the pan-European research and development funding and coordination organization, and held the rotating chairmanship of the organization for 2010–2011. In 2010, journalist David Kaufman wrote that the high tech area of Yokneam, Israel, has the “world’s largest concentration of aesthetics-technology companies”. Google‘s Chairman Eric Schmidt complimented the country during a visit there, saying that “Israel has the most important high-tech center in the world after the US.”